Cannabis Genotoxicity Papers
- Stops Brain Waves and Thinking
The brain has both stimulatory and inhibitory pathways.
GABA is the main brain inhibitory pathway. Brain centres
talk to each other on gamma (about 40 cycles/sec) and
theta frequencies (about 5 cycles/sec), where the theta
waves are used as the carrier waves for the gamma wave
which then interacts like harmonics in music.
The degree to which the waves are in and out of phase
carries information which can be monitored externally.
GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) inhibition is key to the
generation of the synchronized firing which underpins
these various brain oscillations. These GABA transmissions
are controlled presynaptically by type 1 cannabinoid
receptors (CB1R’s) and CB1R stimulation shuts them down.
This is why cannabis users forget and fall asleep.
- Blocks GABA Pathway and Brain Formation
GABA is also a key neurotransmitter in brain formation
in that it guides and direct neural stem cell formation
and transmission and development and growth of the
cerebral cortex and other major brain areas. Gamma and
theta brain waves also direct neural stem cell formation,
sculpting and connectivity. Derangements then of GABA
physiology imply that the brain will not form properly.
Thin frontal cortical plate measurements have been
shown in humans prenatally exposed to cannabis by fMRI.
This implies that their brains can never be structurally
normal which then explains the long lasting and persistent
defects identified into adulthood.
- Epigenetic Damage
DNA not only carries the genetic hardware of our genetic
code but it also carries the software of the code which
works like traffic lights along the sequence of DNA bases
to direct when to switch the genes on and off. This is
known as the “epigenetic code”. Fetal alcohol syndrome is
believed to be due to damage to the software epigenetic
code. The long lasting intellectual, mood regulation,
attention and concentration defects which have been
described after in utero cannabis exposure in the primary,
middle and high schools and as college age young adults
are likely due to these defects. Epigenetics “sets in stone”
the errors of brain structure made in (2) above.
- Arterial Damage
Cannabis has a well described effect to damage arteries
through (CB1R’s) (American Heart Association 2007)
which they carry in high concentration (Nature Reviews
Cardiology 2018). In adults this causes heart attack
(500% elevation in the first hour after smoking), stroke,
severe cardiac arrhythmias including sudden cardiac
death; but in developing babies CB1R’s acting on the
developing heart tissues can lead to at least six major
cardiac defects (Atrial- ventricular- and mixed atrioventricular
and septal defects, Tetralogy of Fallot,
Epstein’s deformity amongst others), whilst constriction
of various babies’ arteries can lead to serious side effects
such as gastroschisis (bowels hanging out) and possibly
absent limbs (in at least one series).
There are several principal pathways to inheritable genotoxicity, mutagenicity and teratogenesis induced by cannabis which are
known and well established at this time including the following. These three papers discuss different aspects of these effects.
/DALGARNOSNB NOBRAINER_DRUGS DALGARNOINSTITUTE.ORG.AU
Summary of Cannabis
By Professor Dr. A. S Reece
(Edith Cowan University & University of Western Australia) 2019
/DALGARNOSNB NOBRAINER_DRUGS DALGARNOINSTITUTE.ORG.AU
- Disruption of Mitotic Spindle
When cells divide the separating chromosomes actually
slide along “train tracks” which are long chains made
of tubulin. The tubulin chains are called “microtubules”
and the whole football-shaped structure is called a
“mitotic spindle”. Cannabis inhibits tubulin formation,
disrupting microtubules and the mitotic spindle causing
the separating chromosomes to become cut off in tiny
micronuclei, where they eventually become smashed up
and pulverized into “genetic junk”, which leads to foetal
malformations, cancer and cell death. High rates of
Down’s syndrome, chromosomal anomalies and cancersin
cannabis exposed babies provide clinical evidence of this.
- Defective Energy Generation & Downstream DNA
DNA is the crown jewel of the cell and its most complex
molecule. Maintaining it in good repair is a very energy
intensive process. Without energy DNA cannot be
properly maintained. Cannabis has been known to reduce
cellular energy production by the cell’s power plants,
mitochondria, for many decades now. This has now
been firmly linked with increased DNA damage, cancer
formation and aging of the cells and indeed the whole
organism. As it is known to occur in eggs and sperm,
this will also damage the quality of the germ cells which
go into forming the baby and lead directly to damaged
babies and babies lost and wasted through spontaneous
miscarriage and therapeutic termination for severe
- Cancer induction
Cannabis causes 12 cancers and has been identified as a
carcinogen by the California Environmental Protection
agency (2009). This makes it also a mutagen. 4 of
these cancers are inheritable to children; i.e. inheritable
carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. All four studies in
testicular cancer are strongly positive (elevation by three
fold). Carcinogen = mutagen = teratogen.
- Colorado’s Teratology Profile
From the above described teratological profile we
would expect exactly the profile of congenital defects
which have been identified in Colorado(higher total
defects and heart defects, and chromosomal defects)
and Ottawa in Canada (long lasting and persistent brain
damage seen on both functional testing and fMRI brain
scans in children exposed in utero) where cannabis use
has become common. Gastroschisis was shown to be
higher in all seven studies looking at this; and including
in Canada, carefully controlled studies. Moreover in
Australia, Canada, North Carolina, Colorado, Mexico
and New Zealand, gastroschisis and sometimes other
major congenital defects cluster where cannabis use is
highest. Colorado 2000-2013 has experienced an extra
20,152 severely abnormal births above the rates prior to
cannabis liberalization which if applied to the whole USA
would equate to more than 83,000 abnormal babies live
born annually (and probably about that number again
therapeutically aborted); actually much more since both
the number of users and concentration of cannabis have
risen sharply since 2013, and cannabis has been well
proven to be much more severely genotoxic at higher
- Cannabidiol is also Genotoxic
Cannabidiol tests positive in many genotoxicity assays,
just as tetrahydrocannabinol does.
- Births defects registry data needs to be open and
transparent and public.
At present it is not. This looks too much like a cover up.