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Cannabis Genotoxicity Papers

  • Stops Brain Waves And Thinking

The brain has both stimulatory and inhibitory pathways.

GABA is the main brain inhibitory pathway. Brain centres

talk to each other on gamma (about 40 cycles/sec) and

theta frequencies (about 5 cycles/sec), where the theta

waves are used as the carrier waves for the gamma wave

which then interacts like harmonics in music.

The degree to which the waves are in and out of phase

carries information which can be monitored externally.

GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) inhibition is key to the

generation of the synchronized firing which underpins

these various brain oscillations. These GABA transmissions

are controlled presynaptically by type 1 cannabinoid

receptors (CB1R’s) and CB1R stimulation shuts them down.

This is why cannabis users forget and fall asleep.

  • Blocks GABA Pathway and Brain Formation

GABA is also a key neurotransmitter in brain formation

in that it guides and direct neural stem cell formation

and transmission and development and growth of the

cerebral cortex and other major brain areas. Gamma and

theta brain waves also direct neural stem cell formation,

sculpting and connectivity. Derangements then of GABA

physiology imply that the brain will not form properly.

Thin frontal cortical plate measurements have been

shown in humans prenatally exposed to cannabis by fMRI.

This implies that their brains can never be structurally

normal which then explains the long lasting and persistent

defects identified into adulthood.

  1. Epigenetic Damage

DNA not only carries the genetic hardware of our genetic

code but it also carries the software of the code which

works like traffic lights along the sequence of DNA bases

to direct when to switch the genes on and off. This is

known as the “epigenetic code”. Fetal alcohol syndrome is

believed to be due to damage to the software epigenetic

code. The long lasting intellectual, mood regulation,

attention and concentration defects which have been

described after in utero cannabis exposure in the primary,

middle and high schools and as college age young adults

are likely due to these defects. Epigenetics “sets in stone”

the errors of brain structure made in (2) above.

  1. Arterial Damage

Cannabis has a well described effect to damage arteries

through (CB1R’s) (American Heart Association 2007)

which they carry in high concentration (Nature Reviews

Cardiology 2018). In adults this causes heart attack

(500% elevation in the first hour after smoking), stroke,

severe cardiac arrhythmias including sudden cardiac

death; but in developing babies CB1R’s acting on the

developing heart tissues can lead to at least six major

cardiac defects (Atrial- ventricular- and mixed atrioventricular

and septal defects, Tetralogy of Fallot,

Epstein’s deformity amongst others), whilst constriction

of various babies’ arteries can lead to serious side effects

such as gastroschisis (bowels hanging out) and possibly

absent limbs (in at least one series).

There are several principal pathways to inheritable genotoxicity, mutagenicity and teratogenesis induced by cannabis which are

known and well established at this time including the following. These three papers discuss different aspects of these effects.


Summary of Cannabis

Genotoxicity Papers

By Professor Dr. A. S Reece

(Edith Cowan University & University of Western Australia) 2019


  1. Disruption of Mitotic Spindle

When cells divide the separating chromosomes actually

slide along “train tracks” which are long chains made

of tubulin. The tubulin chains are called “microtubules”

and the whole football-shaped structure is called a

“mitotic spindle”. Cannabis inhibits tubulin formation,

disrupting microtubules and the mitotic spindle causing

the separating chromosomes to become cut off in tiny

micronuclei, where they eventually become smashed up

and pulverized into “genetic junk”, which leads to foetal

malformations, cancer and cell death. High rates of

Down’s syndrome, chromosomal anomalies and cancersin

cannabis exposed babies provide clinical evidence of this.

  1. Defective Energy Generation & Downstream DNA


DNA is the crown jewel of the cell and its most complex

molecule. Maintaining it in good repair is a very energy

intensive process. Without energy DNA cannot be

properly maintained. Cannabis has been known to reduce

cellular energy production by the cell’s power plants,

mitochondria, for many decades now. This has now

been firmly linked with increased DNA damage, cancer

formation and aging of the cells and indeed the whole

organism. As it is known to occur in eggs and sperm,

this will also damage the quality of the germ cells which

go into forming the baby and lead directly to damaged

babies and babies lost and wasted through spontaneous

miscarriage and therapeutic termination for severe


  1. Cancer induction

Cannabis causes 12 cancers and has been identified as a

carcinogen by the California Environmental Protection

agency (2009). This makes it also a mutagen. 4 of

these cancers are inheritable to children; i.e. inheritable

carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. All four studies in

testicular cancer are strongly positive (elevation by three

fold). Carcinogen = mutagen = teratogen.

  1. Colorado’s Teratology Profile

From the above described teratological profile we

would expect exactly the profile of congenital defects

which have been identified in Colorado(higher total

defects and heart defects, and chromosomal defects)

and Ottawa in Canada (long lasting and persistent brain

damage seen on both functional testing and fMRI brain

scans in children exposed in utero) where cannabis use

has become common. Gastroschisis was shown to be

higher in all seven studies looking at this; and including

in Canada, carefully controlled studies. Moreover in

Australia, Canada, North Carolina, Colorado, Mexico

and New Zealand, gastroschisis and sometimes other

major congenital defects cluster where cannabis use is

highest. Colorado 2000-2013 has experienced an extra

20,152 severely abnormal births above the rates prior to

cannabis liberalization which if applied to the whole USA

would equate to more than 83,000 abnormal babies live

born annually (and probably about that number again

therapeutically aborted); actually much more since both

the number of users and concentration of cannabis have

risen sharply since 2013, and cannabis has been well

proven to be much more severely genotoxic at higher


  1. Cannabidiol is also Genotoxic

Cannabidiol tests positive in many genotoxicity assays,

just as tetrahydrocannabinol does.

  1. Births defects registry data needs to be open and transparent and public.

At present it is not. This looks too much like a cover up.